Last Updated on : Monday, 07 May, 2018 03:06:31 AM

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Empty fruit bunches (EFB)

  FERTILIZER CONTENT OF 1 TON EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES (EFB) Equivalent quantity of nutrient
1 Urea 3.8 Kg
2 Rock phosphate 3.9 Kg
3 Muriate of potash 18.0 Kg
4 Kieserite 9.2 Kg

  NUTRIENT CONTENT OF EFB Composition as a percentage of dry matter
1 Nitrogen (N) 0.44
2 Phosphorous (P) 0.144
3 Potassium (K) 2.24
4 Magnesium (Mg) 0.36
5 Calcium (Ca) 0.36

For further information of usage Empty fruit bunches (EFB):

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Md. Abdul MANNAN
Civil Engineering Program
School of Engineering & Information Technology
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, UMS, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Tel: +6-088-3200 00 ext. 3100, Fax: +6-088-320348    



EFB Fiber are 100% vegetable base from oil-palm biomass resulting from the palm-oil extraction and milling process.

Processed EFB Fiber are used as industrial and farming applications :

1) as a material for wood-based products (particle and fiberboards)
2) composite panels
3) pulp & paper
4) soil stabilization
5) horticultural applications

Two Main use of Empty Fruit Bunches in Malaysia :
1) Mulch (
護蓋物) in Plantation
2) Fuel for Electricity Generation

Oil palm fibers are usable for the following applications :-

1) Animal Feed Supplement for Cattle, Goats and Sheep
2) Rich Source of Organic Fertilizer for Farming
3) Excellent Mulching Material for Landscaping, Young Plants and Seedlings
4) Raw Material for Composite Board Manufacture (example : - MDF / Particleboard / Cement board / Gypsum board)
5) Raw Material for Pulp and Paper Manufacture
6) Filler Material for Pipes and Conduits
7) Planting Medium for Nurseries and Greenhouses
8) Alternative Boiler Fuel

Empty fruit bunches (EFB) is becoming a popular source of fuel for renewable energy (RE) power generation.
The rapid depletion of fossil fuel and most developed nations are pursuing the development of biomass as an alternative method of power generation.

Malaysia has a ready source of biomass in Empty fruit bunches (EFB) conveniently collected and available for exploitation in all palm oil mills.

When convert the energy in the most efficient manner, Malaysia is well on the way to this most important sustainable source of energy for this century.
The main achievement of using biomass-based RE power generation is the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG).

In Sabah, large quantities of palm waste called Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) are available from plantations where palm oil is produced.  In its raw state, EFB is both very fibrous and wet.  If it could be dried, it would be an excellent fuel for power boilers.  FASC Malaysia has installed a KDS machine in the 14 MWe TSH Biomass Power Plant in Kunak, Malaysia, for the purpose of drying EFB.  Called the KDS MF-777, it dries and shreds EFB so that it can be burned as a fuel.  At present, only one-sixth of the fuel input needed by the TSH power plant is supplied by the KDS MF-777.  The KDS MF-777 processes 3750 kg/hr of raw EFB having a moisture content of 52 % and produces 3000 kg/hr of shredded EFB which has a moisture content of 40 % - this is dry enough for burning on a grate.  The power consumption of the MF-777 is only 200 kW, under these operating conditions.  This translates to a drying energy consumption of only 960 kJ per kg of water removal (= 414 BTU/lb) or only 44 % of the latent heat of water!  No other dryer technology can match the low energy consumption of the KDS MF-777.  It is well-known among power plant engineers that every percentage point of moisture in the fuel causes 0.5-1 % reduction in the electricity produced.  Thus, the estimated maximum possible increase in the TSH power plant output because of drying the fuel in the KDS MF-777 is 0.84-1.68 MWe. Thus, a net overall increase in the total power generated becomes possible due to the KDS MF-777. Therefore, the cost of the KDS equipment can be recouped from the extra revenue from the increased electricity production.

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is yet to be fully utilised economically. RFB has been a subject of environmental concern, whereas its handling in the palm oil mill also consumes unproductive cost and energy.


Roof Tile using solid waste

Natural fibres reinforced cement-based materials have gain increasing application in residential housing components.

One of the natural fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) fibres offer advantages including :

1) availability,

2) renewability,

3) low cost

4) established technology in extracting fibres.

Material recovery from conversion of agricultural solid wastes into potential construction products has not only benefited the environment but also helps preserve natural resources. EFB (empty fruit bunch) is one of such solid waste generated in oil palm planted throughout Malaysia over 4 million hectares land, which remains unutilised commercially. Hence, it has been verified in engineering properties and construction products made from EFB satisfy the requirement of consumers' trend using products made from eco-friendly and natural waste.

Empty fruit bunches (EFB)Empty fruit bunches (EFB)


•High breaking load
•High impact resistance, so avoiding wire-mesh underneath roof tiles
•Easy to nail with purlin, so obtaining strong fixity
•Light weight, so easy to handle
•Non-heat conductor, so avoiding thermal insulator
•Zero value for water absorption and water permeability
•No buckling effect
•Low cost product
•Fast in assembling
•User-and environmental-friendly product