EPP 5 : SWIFTLET COMMERCIAL CENTRE (SCC)
| 燕屋投资 | Swiftlets Farming | Swiftlets | Edible Birds Nests | Bird's Nest | Bird's Nest Exporters in Malaysia |
News on Swiflets Farming : http://www.swiftletfarming.com.my/contents.php?id=100009
Swiftlets and Edible Birds Nests
Asian Swallow Bird Nests
"swallow's nest". yŗn wō (燕窝)
|By 2020. Malaysia is expected to
have 63,000 swiftlet premises producing 870 metric tones of bird's
nest worth RM3.5 billion.
In 2010 alone, the production of bird's nest was around 290 metric tones valued at RM1.2 billion.
Malaysian government has identified swiftlet farming as a high potential industry, and as such, accorded it priority in the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP)
In Sabah, the production of Edible Bird Nest (EBN) had long been practiced, particularly, traditional bird's nest of high quality from caves, including Gua Guomantong and Gua Madai.
The export value of bird's nest contributed by Sabah was in the range of about RM13 million to RM17 million annually, with the main markets being Hong Kong and China.
He said apart from caves, the rearing of swiftlets was on the rise. According to the Sabah Wildlife Department, in just 2009, there were 500 swiftlet premises in Sabah.
|2 types of bird's nests for export from Malaysia|
(Raw Bird's Nests)
(Clean Bird's Nests)
Swiftlet farms are built in large cavernous buildings, that offer plenty of surfaces for the swiftlets to build their nests
|The nests of the swiftlet are
formed from saliva, and are highly prized as the main ingredient in
bird's nest soup
BBC © 2012 :
|Birdís Nest Protocol
The new Birdís Nest Protocol ensure
that Malaysiaís birdís nest fulfils the standards required and is of
high quality. In this new protocol, exporting birdís nest require
certifications from the Health Ministry and a certificate of origin
from the Veterinary Services Department.
There are about 50,000 birdís nest traders in Malaysia but the ministry has only managed to register about 2,000 in the last six months.
Edible birdís nest has been used in
Chinese cooking for centuries. But China had banned birdís nest from
Malaysia after it was found to have excessive nitrite in July
Birdís Nest Museum :
Certificate of authenticity
Malaysian government is now
investing in Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) to allows a
product to be easily tracked from the source to the consumer.
Swiftlets Farming - Birds' Nest Farming using Nesting Houses
Birdnest Center | Breeding Swiftlet in The Farming House
is a modern and commercialized way of producing birdís nest
The traditional way has been the harvesting from caves.
Swiflet farming is about attracting swiflets to inhabit in a man-built building, which is referred to as swiflet house.
The swiflets would then start breeding in the swiflet house where, swiflet pairs will build birdís nests for this purpose.
Birdís nest is where swiflets lay their eggs and hatch them. When the young swiflets reaches maturity to fly and live independently, they would leave their nests, leaving the nests ready to be harvested by the owner of the swiflet house.
Nest harvesters in Indonesia have developed the practice of "farming" which entails buying up houses with colonies of Mossy- nest Swiftlets which are cross-fostered: the eggs of White-nest Swiftlets are placed in these nest colonies.
Once mature the White-nest Swiftlets return to the house and establish a colony.
With the escalation in demand these sources have been supplanted since the late 1990s by purpose-built nesting houses, usually reinforced concrete structures following the design of the SE Asian shop-house ("ruko").
These nesting houses are normally found in urban areas near the sea, since the birds have a propensity to flock in such places.
This has become an extraordinary industry, mainly based on a series of towns in the Indonesian Province of North Sumatra, which have been completely transformed by the activity.
|While the Edible-nest and Black-nest Swiftlet are not yet on
the endangered species lists of either CITES or the IUCN, there are
measures which attempt to protect them.
Supplier countries have domestic legislation to regulate importing/exporting, hunting, poaching, and selling of Swiftlet nests.
For example, since 1934 there has been an ordinance in Sarawak, Malaysia which permits the nests to be harvested only every 75 days.
Currently in Sabah only 2 harvests per year of White-nest Swiftlets are allowed.
Despite policies to protect the bird their numbers continue to decline, probably a result of illegal trade which counts for a substantial percentage of harvested nests.
The World Wide Fund for nature is currently preparing a proposal for the 1994 meeting of the Convention on International Trade on Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES) which will be held in the United States.
The proposal will recommend that the Swiftlet species be placed on CITES' Appendix II (threatened species).
The rising price and rising demand for these nests have resulted in a decline in the swiftlet population.
Poachers and the cutting down of forests where Swiftlets feed contribute to the decline.
Indonesia is the biggest supplier of swiftlet nests with
Thailand ranking second, followed by
southern India and
|The Birds of Madai Caves
Market for these nests is booming in Asia. Prices have doubled in recent years. China was traditionally the biggest importer of birds' nests.
Today Hong Kong is the biggest official consumer of birds' nests, importing about 100 tons (grossing about $25 million) annually. In Hong Kong 55 pounds of top quality white nests (the most prized) can be worth $50,000.
The value of the nests of these birds has become so great that harvesters no longer wait until eggs or chicks depart the nest. Both are simply discarded and the nest taken. (photo top).
The nests are identified as "Black Nests" - the 2nd grade of Swiftlet nest. Before export the nest must be cleaned to remove feathers. Black Nests are less expensive than White Nests which are less to find.
This practice has decimated many younger bird populations in some areas. Each harvest, hundreds of chicks being too weak to fly are left to dead on the cave floor (photo middle).
From the nest of mix black feather and saliva, this young bird is identified as the species Collacalia Maximus.
So plentiful of young chicks are found on the cave floor during harvest that this soft drink lady hawker picked up two for decoration on her T-shirts (photo bottom).
She belongs to the tribe Idaíans. The Ida'ans villagers held their rights to the Madai Caves . And for 20 over generations the Ida'ans harvest these edible birds' nests and sales to merchants who exports the nests to China.
|Harvesting the nests
The harvesting of Swiftlet nests is a potentially hazardous occupation. See above photo.
They are collected from high, dark caves by special collectors who climb up and balance on bamboo poles attached to steep cliffs.
These cliffs reach hundreds of meters in height. This is a traditional occupation and the skill of nest collection is generally passed down from father to son.
|Black-nest of Swiftlets -
Black-nest Swiftlets weave a nest from strands of saliva:
The male swiftlet regurgitates a long, thin gelatinous strand from salivary glands under its tongue which is then wound into a half- cup nest which bonds like quick-drying cement to the inside of a cave wall.
Swiftlet nests are carefully removed from the cave wall (see photo). The nests are relatively tasteless and so are usually served in soup or jelly, mixed with chicken, spices, sauce or sweets.
| For centuries in China these
nests have been considered nourishing and tasty as well as a booster
of health for the sick and aging; they are even believed to be an
Swiftlets build their nests with twigs, straws and earth and are no edible contents
But there are 3 special species of swiftlets build their nests mixed with saliva.
These three major types of edible bird's nests have purity protein contents and nutritional value of the saliva secreted.
The species Collocalia ciphaga swiftlets has the the highest saliva contents(see photos below).
Collocalia ciphaga bird's nest:
Collocalia ciphaga bird's nest built with pure saliva from swiftlets with minimum impurities.
Saliva dried and in strips form with high affinity for water.
This is the best quality bird's nest.
Color usually white, yellow, red or grey in colour.
Collacalia Maximus bird's nest:
Collacalia Maximus is a type of cave swiftlet that have less saliva.
This species of bird build their nests mixing feathers and saliva.
Colour is lighter. Usually white or
|ē Hydrochous Gigas
Hydrochous Gigas bird's nest may be divided into two type :
1) House Hydrochous Gigas
2) Cave Hydrochous Gigas
Both are mostly found along the coastal regions.
Hydrochous Gigas swiftlets use their saliva and straws to build their nests.
These bird's nests contain mainly pieces of straws and less saliva.
Hydrochous Gigas bird's nests come
from swiftlets with specially sticky saliva. These swiftlets love to
use young straw and their saliva to build their nests. Their bird's
nests therefore are high in impurities and their edible bird's nest
content is the lowest among the three types of swiftlets and so is
its price. They are usually sold as broken bird's nest and bird's
Photo above : Gomantong Caves is the Worldís biggest birdís nest caves.
This birdís nest caves produce Collocalia ciphaga bird's nest.
Only 45 minutes by car from Sandakan City.
Photo above : A young villager with his fortune find of 2 Collacalia Maximus bird's nest in Madai Cave, Sabah.
Each year the bird's nest harvest in Madai Cave is done by professional harvesters who climb up the 100 meters tall cave wall to scrape out bird's nest.
But what ever dropped off to the ground belong to those fortune seeking villagers waiting down below like the young man in above photo.
Photo above : A House Hydrochous Gigas swiftlet is hatching in an abandoned house in Kimanis, Sabah.
|Bird's Nest / Edible Birdnest Processing HACCP
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)
It certify the bird's nest / edible birdnest processing procedure has fulfilled the international highest food standard
|Edible birdnest processing line including
HACCP certification of Ministry Of Health, Malaysia. :
|Types Of Bird's Nest
They are actually the saliva nests constructed by esculent swiftlets that are native in Thailand, Indonesian, Malaysia and south of China.
According to the environment in which the bird's nests are
formed, they can be classified into
While from the Chinese medical point of view, bird's nest
Eedible-birdnest swiftlet ranching.
HACCP certified raw-unclean edible-birdnest processing line.
HACCP certified clean edible-birdnest processing line.
Bird's nest soup is a delicacy in Chinese cuisine.
Only the cave swifts are renowned for building the saliva nests used to produce the unique texture of this soup.
For over 400 years the the Chinese has been cooking this bird's nest soup.
the birds' nests became a gelatinous texture when dissolved in water.
The white nests and the red nests are supposedly rich in nutrients, which are traditionally believed to provide health benefits, such as aiding digestion, raising libido, improving the voice, alleviating asthma, improving focus, and an overall benefit to the immune system.
They take the shape of a shallow cup stuck to the cave wall. The nests are composed of interwoven strands of salivary laminae cement. Both nests have high levels of calcium, iron, potassium, and magnesium.
In Hong Kong, a bowl of bird's nest soup would cost $30 USD to $100 USD.
A kilogram of white nest can cost up to $2,000 USD, and a kilogram of red nests can cost up to $10,000 USD.
Natural red cave nests are often only found in limestone caves in a bird nest concession island in Thailand.
From there the nests are mostly exported to Hong Kong, which has become the centre of the world trade, though most of the final consumers are from mainland China.
It has been estimated that the products now account for 0.5% of the Indonesian GDP, equivalent to about a quarter of Indonesia's fishing industry.
The swiftlet barns in this area are built from copious quantities of timber (particularly belian and meranti), and legal timber supplies are inadequate to meet demand, which is instead being met by increasing levels of illegal logging in the National Park.
|Bird's nest suppliers in Malaysia
Bird's nest suppliers in Thailand
Bird's nest suppliers in Indonesia
Bird's nest suppliers in Philippines
Federation of Malaysia Bird's Nest Merchants Association
马来西亚燕窝联盟会主席Datuk Paduka Beh Heng Seong
- 斗湖燕窝Traditional Chinese Health Food -
1-Golden bird's nest 2-Golden bird's nest 3-Indonesia
bird's nest 4-Keningau bird's nest 5-Kunak bird's
Blood Nest, Orange Nest and White Nest, etc.
Swallow bird nests are accepted
by Asia to
have medical and health enhancing effect, a rejuvenating agent that slows down
the aging process.
Swallow nests also act as demulcent to the lungs and are used in relieving phlegm and coughs.
It is an excellent supplement for all ages:
- Elderly and Children - stimulate appetite and aids digestion
- Pregnant woman - give birth to a beautiful and smooth complexion baby
- Patient - provide protein and nutrient to recover quickly from illness
- Women - make their facial skin smooth and lively